Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
Vitamin B6 is a type of B vitamin. It can be found in certain foods such as cereals, beans, vegetables, liver, meat, and eggs. It can also be made in a laboratory.
Vitamin B6 is used for preventing and treating low levels of pyridoxine (pyridoxine deficiency) and the anemia that may result. It is also used for heart disease, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), depression, and many other conditions.
Vitamin B6 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products.
Is a Form of:
Low levels of pyridoxine
Also Known As:
Adermine Chlorhydrate, Adermine Hydrochloride, B Complex Vitamin
How Does It Work?
Pyridoxine is required for the proper function of sugars, fats, and proteins in the body. It is also required for the proper growth and development of the brain, nerves, skin, and many other parts of the body.
- Seizures. Administering vitamin B6 intravenously (by IV) controls seizures in infants that are caused by vitamin B6 dependence.
- A condition in which the body makes abnormal red blood cells that build up iron (sideroblastic anemia). Taking vitamin B6 by mouth is effective for treating an inherited type of anemia called sideroblastic anemia.
- Vitamin B6 deficiency. Taking vitamin B6 by mouth is effective for preventing and treating vitamin B6 deficiency.
- High levels of homocysteine in the blood (hyperhomocysteinemia).Taking vitamin B6 by mouth, usually with folic acid, is effective for treating high homocysteine levels in the blood.
- An eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration). Some research shows that taking vitamin B6 with other vitamins including folic acid and vitamin B12 might help prevent the loss of vision caused by an eye disease called macular degeneration.
- Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). As people age, their arteries tend to lose their ability to stretch and flex. Garlic and other ingredients seem to reduce this effect. Taking a specific supplement containing garlic, amino acids (part of proteins), and vitamins such as folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 (Kyolic, Total Heart Health, Formula 108, Wakunga) seem to reduce symptoms of hardening of the arteries.
- Kidney stones. People with a hereditary disorder called type I primary hyperoxaluria have an increased risk of forming kidney stones. There is some evidence that taking vitamin B6 by mouth, alone or along with magnesium, or getting vitamin B6 injected into the vein, can decrease the risk of kidney stones in people with this condition. However, it does not appear to help people with other kinds of kidney stones.
- Morning sickness. Some research suggests that taking vitamin B6, usually as pyridoxine, improves symptoms of mild to moderate nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology considers vitamin B6 a first-line treatment for nausea and vomiting caused by pregnancy. Vitamin B6 plus the medicationdoxylamine is recommended for women who do not get better when treated with just vitamin B6. However, taking this combination is less effective than the medication ondansetron.
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). There is some evidence that taking vitamin B6 as pyridoxine by mouth can improve PMS symptoms including breast pain. The lowest effective dose should be used. Higher doses will increase the chance of side effects and are not likely to increase the beneficial effects.
- A movement disorder often caused by antipsychotic drugs (tardive dyskinesia). Taking vitamin B6 seems to improve movement disorders in people taking certain drugs for schizophrenia.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For a condition in which the body make abnormal red blood cells that build up iron (sideroblastic anemia): Initially, 200-600 mg of vitamin B6 is used. The dose is decreased to 30-50 mg per day after an adequate response.
- For vitamin B6 deficiency: In most adults, the typical dose is 2.5-25 mg daily for three weeks then 1.5-2.5 mg per day thereafter. In women taking birth control pills, the dose is 25-30 mg per day.
- For high levels of homocysteine in the blood (hyperhomocysteinemia): For reducing high levels of homocysteine in the blood after meals, 50-200 mg of vitamin B6 has been taken alone. Also, 100 mg of vitamin B6 has been taken in combination with 0.5 mg of folic acid.
- For an eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration): 50 mg of vitamin B6 in the form of pyridoxine has been used daily in combination with 1000 mcg of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and 2500 mcg of folic acid for about 7 years.
- For hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis): A specific supplement (Kyolic, Total Heart Health, Formula 108, Wakunga) containing 250 mg of aged garlic extract, 100 mcg of vitamin B12, 300 mcg of folic acid, 12.5 mg of vitamin B6, and 100 mg of L-arginine daily for 12 months has been used.
- For kidney stones: 25-500 mg of vitamin B6 has been used daily.
- For morning sickness: 10-25 mg of vitamin B6 taken three or four times per day has been used. In people who don't respond to vitamin B6 alone, a combination product containing vitamin B6 and the drug doxylamine (Diclectin, Duchesnay Inc.) is used three or four times per day. Also, another product containing 75 mg of vitamin B6, 12 mcg of vitamin B12, 1 mg of folic acid, and 200 mg of calcium (PremesisRx, KV Pharmaceuticals) is used daily.
- For symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS): 50-100 mg of vitamin B6 is used daily, alone or along with 200 mg of magnesium.
- For treating a movement disorder often caused by antipsychotic drugs (tardive dyskinesia): 100 mg of vitamin B6 per day has been increased weekly up to 400 mg per day, given in two divided doses.
INJECTED INTO THE MUSCLE:
- A condition in which the body makes abnormal red blood cells that build up iron (sideroblastic anemia): 250 mg of vitamin B6 daily, reduced to 250 mg of vitamin B6 weekly once adequate response is achieved.
- For kidney stones: Up to 20 mg/kg daily in children aged 5 years and up.
INJECTED INTO THE VEIN OR MUSCLE:
- For seizures: 10-100 mg is recommended for seizures in newborns who are dependent on vitamin B6.
The daily recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of vitamin B6 are: Infants 0-6 months, 0.1 mg; Infants 7-12 months, 0.3 mg; Children 1-3 years, 0.5 mg; Children 4-8 years, 0.6 mg; Children 9-13 years, 1 mg; Males 14-50 years, 1.3 mg; Males over 50 years, 1.7 mg; Females 14-18 years, 1.2 mg; Females 19-50 years, 1.3 mg; Females over 50 years, 1.5 mg; Pregnant women, 1.9 mg; and breast-feeding women, 2 mg. Some researchers think the RDA for women 19-50 years should be increased to 1.5-1.7 mg per day. The recommended maximum daily intake is: Children 1-3 years, 30 mg; Children 4-8 years, 40 mg; Children 9-13 years, 60 mg; Adults, pregnant and breast-feeding women, 14-18 years, 80 mg; and Adults, pregnant and breast-feeding women, over 18 years, 100 mg.
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Supplements Frequently Asked Questions
What is vitamin b6 pyridoxine used for?
Vitamin B6 plays an important role in the body. It is needed to maintain the health of nerves, skin, and red blood cells. Pyridoxine has been used to prevent or treat a certain nerve disorder (peripheral neuropathy) caused by certain medications (such as isoniazid).
Is pyridoxine a vitamin b6?
Vitamin B6 is one of the B vitamins that benefits the central nervous system. It is involved in producing the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine, and in forming myelin. Also known as pyridoxine, vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin, which means it dissolves in water.
What is the best form of vitamin b6?
What Form of Pyridoxine is Best? Most supplements contain inactivated pyridoxine, but some sources suggest that the activated (pyridoxal-5-phosphate, abbreviated as PLP) form is better.
How much b6 should you take a day?
A vitamin B-6 deficiency is usually coupled with deficiency in other B vitamins, such as folate (vitamin B-9) and vitamin B-12. The recommended daily amount of vitamin B-6 for adults is 1.3 milligrams.
What does pyridoxine cure?
Pyridoxine has been used to prevent or treat a certain nerve disorder (peripheral neuropathy) caused by certain medications (such as isoniazid). It has also been used to treat certain hereditary disorders (such as xanthurenic aciduria, hyperoxaluria, homocystinuria).
Should I take b6?
You can get vitamin B6 from food or supplements. The current recommended daily amount (RDA) for B6 is 1.3–1.7 mg for adults over 19. Doses of 30–250 mg of vitamin B6 per day have been used in research on PMS, morning sickness and heart disease
How long does it take b6 to work?
The delayed-release formulation means you'll feel better about five to seven hours after taking it. Taking it before bed at night can help control your symptoms of morning sickness when you get up the next day. It can also mean that signs of accidental overdose would be delayed.
Does vitamin b6 cause weight gain?
For example, low levels of vitamin B6 are associated with a decrease in brain serotonin levels which could result in an increased appetite. On the other hand, some people may blame multivitamins for weight gain or a lack of weight loss because they ignore the bigger picture of their overall lifestyle.
Can you take too much b6?
Potential Side Effects of Too Much Vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 toxicity is not likely to occur from food sources of B6. It would be nearly impossible to consume the amount in supplements from diet alone. Taking more than 1,000 mg of supplemental B6 a day may cause nerve damage and pain or numbness in the hands or feet.
What foods are high in b6?
Vitamin B6 is found in a wide variety of foods, including:
- poultry, such as chickenor turkey.
- wholegrain cereals, such as oatmeal, wheatgerm and brown rice.
- soya beans.
What causes low b6?
Vitamin B6 deficiency is usually caused by pyridoxine-inactivating drugs (eg, isoniazid), protein-energy undernutrition, malabsorption, alcoholism, or excessive loss. Deficiency can cause peripheral neuropathy, seborrheic dermatitis, glossitis, and cheilosis, and, in adults, depression, confusion, and seizures.
When should I take pyridoxine?
If pyridoxine has been prescribed for you by a doctor, take it exactly as your doctor tells you to. The directions for taking the tablets will be printed on the label of the pack to remind you what the doctor said to you. You can take pyridoxine either before or after food.
Does vitamin b6 help you lose weight?
Vitamin B6 helps jumpstart weight loss because it helps the body metabolize fat and reduce water retention. Weight loss experts have found this vitamin to be highly beneficial for weight loss. Vitamin B6 supports many functions in the body that are necessary for weight loss.
How long does it take for b6 and Unisom to start working?
The delayed-release formulation means you'll feel better about five to seven hours after taking it. Taking it before bed at night can help control your symptoms of morning sickness when you get up the next day.
Does vitamin b6 make you happy?
FYI: B6 Might Make You Happier, Smarter, and Less Prone to Brain Fog. Erin Jahns has worked in the beauty industry since 2015. In other words, vitamin B6 is especially important for women.
Does vitamin b6 cause acne?
The Vitamins That Can Cause Acne & Why You Should Reconsider Them. ... Leslie Baumann, MD, a renowned dermatologist based in Miami who wrote the skin health bible The Skin Type Solution says taking certain vitamin Bs—specifically vitamin B6 and B12—may be behind bouts of acne. Not dirt or oil.
Can b6 cause anxiety?
Shortfalls of B6 may affect your mood, sometimes contributing to depression, anxiety, irritability and increased feelings of pain. That's because B6 is involved in the making of several neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
What is a toxic level of vitamin b6?
The US authorities set the no-observed-adverse-effect-level at 200 mg per day and the safe upper limit at 100 mg per day. A report of neurotoxicity in 2 patients who had taken 24 mg and 40 mg of vitamin B6 per day respectively, may be coincidence rather than a true toxic effect of such relatively low doses.
- ^ a b c Zemel MB1, Bruckbauer A. Effects of a leucine and pyridoxine-containing nutraceutical on fat oxidation, and oxidative and inflammatory stress in overweight and obese subjects. Nutrients. (2012)
- ^ Clayton PT. B6-responsive disorders: a model of vitamin dependency. J Inherit Metab Dis. (2006)
- ^ Allgood VE1, Cidlowski JA. Vitamin B6 modulates transcriptional activation by multiple members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. J Biol Chem. (1992)
- ^ Zhang SM1, et al. Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. (2003)
- ^ Wei EK1, et al. Plasma vitamin B6 and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women. J Natl Cancer Inst. (2005)
- ^ Kamat AM1, Lamm DL. Chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am. (2002)
- ^ Bidoli E1, et al. Micronutrients and laryngeal cancer risk in Italy and Switzerland: a case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. (2003)
- ^ Merrill AH Jr1, Henderson JM. Vitamin B6 metabolism by human liver. Ann N Y Acad Sci. (1990)
- ^ Albersen M1, et al. The intestine plays a substantial role in human vitamin B6 metabolism: a Caco-2 cell model. PLoS One. (2013)
- ^ Fonda ML1, Trauss C, Guempel UM. The binding of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to human serum albumin. Arch Biochem Biophys. (1991)
- ^ Pyridoxal Phosphokinases: I. Assay, Distribution, Purification, and Properties.
- ^ Ngo EO1, et al. Absence of pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) activity in neoplastic cells: isolation, characterization, and expression of PNPO cDNA. Biochemistry. (1998)
- ^ Jang YM1, et al. Human pyridoxal phosphatase. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and tissue distribution. J Biol Chem. (2003)
- ^ Middleton HM 3rd. Uptake of pyridoxine hydrochloride by the rat jejunal mucosa in vitro. J Nutr. (1977)
- ^ BOOTH CC, BRAIN MC. The absorption of tritium-labelled pyridoxine hydrochloride in the rat. J Physiol. (1962)
- ^ Mehansho H, Hamm MW, Henderson LM. Transport and metabolism of pyridoxal and pyridoxal phosphate in the small intestine of the rat. J Nutr. (1979)
- ^ Hamm MW, Mehansho H, Henderson LM. Transport and metabolism of pyridoxamine and pyridoxamine phosphate in the small intestine of the rat. J Nutr. (1979)
- ^ a b Said HM1, Ortiz A, Ma TY. A carrier-mediated mechanism for pyridoxine uptake by human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells: regulation by a PKA-mediated pathway. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. (2003)
- ^ a b Said ZM1, et al. Pyridoxine uptake by colonocytes: a specific and regulated carrier-mediated process. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. (2008)
- ^ Nguyen LB, Gregory JF 3rd, Cerda JJ. Effect of dietary fiber on absorption of B-6 vitamers in a rat jejunal perfusion study. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. (1983)
- ^ a b Nelson EW Jr, Lane H, Cerda JJ. Comparative human intestinal bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from a synthetic and a natural source. J Nutr. (1976)
- ^ Mappouras DG1, Stiakakis J, Fragoulis EG. Purification and characterization of L-dopa decarboxylase from human kidney. Mol Cell Biochem. (1990)
- ^ a b Delitala G, et al. Effect of pyridoxine on human hypophyseal trophic hormone release: a possible stimulation of hypothalamic dopaminergic pathway. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1976)
- ^ Allen GF1, et al. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate deficiency causes a loss of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in patients and human neuroblastoma cells, implications for aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and vitamin B(6) deficiency states. J Neurochem. (2010)
- ^ a b Sharma SK1, Dakshinamurti K. Effects of serotonergic agents on plasma prolactin levels in pyridoxine-deficient adult male rats. Neurochem Res. (1994)
- ^ Pace-Schott EF1, et al. SSRI treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects. J Sleep Res. (2001)
- ^ Ebben M1, Lequerica A, Spielman A. Effects of pyridoxine on dreaming: a preliminary study. Percept Mot Skills. (2002)
- ^ Dakshinamurti K1, Lal KJ, Ganguly PK. Hypertension, calcium channel and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Mol Cell Biochem. (1998)
- ^ Villarroel P1, et al. Adipogenic effect of calcium sensing receptor activation. Mol Cell Biochem. (2013)
- ^ He YH1, et al. The calcium-sensing receptor promotes adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through PPARγ pathway. Mol Cell Biochem. (2012)
- ^ Allgood VE1, Powell-Oliver FE, Cidlowski JA. The influence of vitamin B6 on the structure and function of the glucocorticoid receptor. Ann N Y Acad Sci. (1990)
- ^ Allgood VE1, Powell-Oliver FE, Cidlowski JA. Vitamin B6 influences glucocorticoid receptor-dependent gene expression. J Biol Chem. (1990)
- ^ Allgood VE1, Oakley RH, Cidlowski JA. Modulation by vitamin B6 of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene expression requires transcription factors in addition to the glucocorticoid receptor. J Biol Chem. (1993)
- ^ a b c Barletta C, et al. Influence of administration of pyridoxine on circadian rhythm of plasma ACTH, cortisol prolactin and somatotropin in normal subjects. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. (1984)
- ^ a b c Ren SG1, Melmed S. Pyridoxal phosphate inhibits pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. Endocrinology. (2006)
- ^ a b Moretti C, et al. Pyridoxine (B6) suppresses the rise in prolactin and increases the rise in growth hormone induced by exercise. N Engl J Med. (1982)
- ^ Rosenberg JM, Lau-Cam CA, McGuire H. Effects of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) on chlorpromazine-induced serum prolactin rise in male rats. J Pharm Sci. (1979)
- ^ Vescovi PP, et al. Pyridoxine (Vit. B6) decreases opioids-induced hyperprolactinemia. Horm Metab Res. (1985)
- ^ Lurie G1, et al. Prediagnostic plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (vitamin b6) levels and invasive breast carcinoma risk: the multiethnic cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (2012)
- ^ Gressett SM1, Stanford BL, Hardwicke F. Management of hand-foot syndrome induced by capecitabine. J Oncol Pharm Pract. (2006)
- ^ Vukelja SJ, et al. Pyridoxine for the palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome. Ann Intern Med. (1989)
- ^ Fabian CJ1, et al. Pyridoxine therapy for palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia associated with continuous 5-fluorouracil infusion. Invest New Drugs. (1990)
- ^ a b Corrie PG1, et al. A randomised study evaluating the use of pyridoxine to avoid capecitabine dose modifications. Br J Cancer. (2012)
- ^ a b Chang HY1, et al. Clinical use of cyclooxygenase inhibitors impairs vitamin B-6 metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. (2013)
- ^ Stamatiadis D, Bulteau-Portois MC, Mowszowicz I. Inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase activity in human skin by zinc and azelaic acid. Br J Dermatol. (1988)
- ^ Netter A, Hartoma R, Nahoul K. Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and sperm count. Arch Androl. (1981)
- ^ Leake A, Chisholm GD, Habib FK. The effect of zinc on the 5 alpha-reduction of testosterone by the hyperplastic human prostate gland. J Steroid Biochem. (1984)
- ^ a b Schaumburg H, et al. Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse. A new megavitamin syndrome. N Engl J Med. (1983)
- ^ Foca FJ. Motor and sensory neuropathy secondary to excessive pyridoxine ingestion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. (1985)
- ^ Dalton K, Dalton MJ. Characteristics of pyridoxine overdose neuropathy syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand. (1987)
- ^ Parry GJ, Bredesen DE. Sensory neuropathy with low-dose pyridoxine. Neurology. (1985)
- ^ Montpetit VJ1, et al. Alteration of neuronal cytoskeletal organization in dorsal root ganglia associated with pyridoxine neurotoxicity. Acta Neuropathol. (1988)
- ^ Krinke G1, et al. Pyridoxine megavitaminosis produces degeneration of peripheral sensory neurons (sensory neuronopathy) in the dog. Neurotoxicology. (1981)
- ^ Hoover DM, Carlton WW, Henrikson CK. Ultrastructural lesions of pyridoxine toxicity in beagle dogs. Vet Pathol. (1981)
- ^ Windebank AJ, et al. Pyridoxine neuropathy in rats: specific degeneration of sensory axons. Neurology. (1985)
- ^ a b c Krinke GJ1, Fitzgerald RE. The pattern of pyridoxine-induced lesion: difference between the high and the low toxic level. Toxicology. (1988)
- ^ Xu Y1, Sladky JT, Brown MJ. Dose-dependent expression of neuronopathy after experimental pyridoxine intoxication. Neurology. (1989)
- ^ Krinke G, Naylor DC, Skorpil V. Pyridoxine megavitaminosis: an analysis of the early changes induced with massive doses of vitamin B6 in rat primary sensory neurons. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. (1985)
- ^ Perry TA1, et al. Pyridoxine-induced toxicity in rats: a stereological quantification of the sensory neuropathy. Exp Neurol. (2004)
- Masoumi SZ, Ataollahi M, Oshvandi K. Effect of Combined Use of Calcium and Vitamin B6 on Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: a Randomized Clinical Trial. J Caring Sci. (2016)
- Ebrahimi E, et al. Effects of magnesium and vitamin b6 on the severity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms. J Caring Sci. (2012)
- Kashanian M, Mazinani R, Jalalmanesh S. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) therapy for premenstrual syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. (2007)
- De Souza MC, et al. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. (2000)
- Doll H, et al. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and the premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. J R Coll Gen Pract. (1989)
- Kendall KE, Schnurr PP. The effects of vitamin B6 supplementation on premenstrual symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. (1987)
- Hagen I, Nesheim BI, Tuntland T. No effect of vitamin B-6 against premenstrual tension. A controlled clinical study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. (1985)
- Williams MJ, Harris RI, Dean BC. Controlled trial of pyridoxine in the premenstrual syndrome. J Int Med Res. (1985)
- Shobeiri F, Oshvandi K, Nazari M. Clinical effectiveness of vitamin E and vitamin B6 for improving pain severity in cyclic mastalgia. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. (2015)
- Lauritzen C, et al. Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus controlled, double-blind study versus pyridoxine. Phytomedicine. (1997)