Maritime Pine Bark Extract
Maritime pine trees grow in countries on the Mediterranean Sea. The bark is used to make medicine. Maritime pine trees that grown in an area in southwest France are used to make Pycnogenol, the US registered trademark name for a commercially available maritime pine bark extract. The active ingredients in maritime pine can also be extracted from other sources, including peanut skin, grape seed, and witch hazel bark.
Maritime pine bark extract is used for diabetes, asthma, common cold, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
Is a form of:
Pine native to the Mediterranean Region
Diabetes, asthma, cold
Also Known As:
Condensed Tannins, Écorce de Pin, Écorce de Pin Maritime, Extrait d'Écorce de Pin
HOW DOES IT WORK?
Maritime pine contains substances that might improve blood flow. It might also stimulate the immune system, reduce swelling, prevent infections, and have antioxidant effects.
- Hay fever. Some research shows that taking a standardized extract of maritime pine bark before the start of allergy season reduces allergy symptoms in people with birch allergies.
- Asthma. Taking a standardized extract of maritime pine bark daily, along with asthma medications, seems to decrease asthma symptoms and the need for rescue inhalers in children and adults with asthma. Keep in mind that maritime pine bark extract shouldn't be used in place of asthma medicine.
- Athletic performance. Young people (age 20-35 years) seem to be able to exercise on a treadmill for a longer time after taking a standardized extract of maritime pine bark daily for about a month. Also, athletes training for a physical fitness test or a triathalon seem to perform better in the tests and competitions when they take this extract daily for 8 weeks while training compared to only training.
- Poor circulation that can cause the legs to swell (chronic venous insufficiency or CVI). Taking a standardized extract of maritime pine bark by mouth seems to reduce leg pain and heaviness, as well as fluid retention, in people with circulation problems. Using this extract with compression stockings also appears to be more effective than using compression stockings alone. Some people also use horse chestnut seed extract to treat this condition, but using the maritime pine bark extract appears to be more effective.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- Hay fever: 50 mg of a standardized maritime pine bark extract has been used twice daily starting 5 weeks before allergy season.
- Asthma: 1 mg of a standardized maritime pine bark extract per pound of body weight, up to a maximum of 200 mg/day, has been given in two divided doses for one month. Also, 50 mg of the same extract has been used twice daily for 6 months.
- Athletic performance: 100-200 mg a standardized maritime pine bark extract has been used daily for 1-2 months.
- Poor circulation that can cause the legs to swell (chronic venous insufficiency or CVI): 45-360 mg of a standardized maritime pine bark extract has been taken daily in up to three divided doses for 3-12 weeks.
- Asthma: 1 mg of a standardized maritime pine bark extract per pound of body weight has been taken in two divided doses for 3 months by children and adolescents aged 6-18 years.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS:
Is pine bark and pycnogenol the same?
Pine bark is a herbal extract which is available in the UK under the trade name Pycnogenol®. It's rich in several bioflavonoids that have both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The little evidence available suggests that pine bark extract may result in an improvement in the symptoms of osteoarthritis.
Is Pycnogenol worth taking?
Pycnogenol may have benefits for heart and artery health. It seems to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow to the legs. Some small studies suggest it may also protect against coronary artery disease and blood clots. There's good evidence that pycnogenol helps with eye damage caused by diabetes.
How quickly does Pycnogenol work?
Limited research suggests that pycnogenol, used alone or in combination with L-arginine, might improve sexual function in men with ED. It seems to take up to 3 months of treatment for significant improvement.
Is Pycnogenol good for kidneys?
Previous studies have shown Pycnogenol® as a supplement to anti-hypertensive medication further improves kidney flow and kidney function. Pycnogenol® has also been shown in several studies to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients.
Is pine bark extract good for your eyes?
Pine bark extract may boost diabetic eye health. Supplements of French maritime pine bark extract may improve the flow of blood in the tiny blood vessels of the retina, and enhance sight in diabetics with early stage eye problems.
How much Pycnogenol should you take a day?
For poor circulation: 45-360 mg daily, or 50-100 mg three times daily. For diseases of the retina, including those related to diabetes: 50 mg three times daily. For mild high blood pressure: 200 mg of pycnogenol daily. For improving exercise capacity in athletes: 200 mg daily.
What is pine bark supplement good for?
Maritime pine bark extract is commonly used orally to treat and prevent diabetes, diabetes-related health issues, and problems of the heart and blood vessels among many other uses. Some people use skin creams that contain maritime pine bark extract as "anti-aging" products.
What is maritime pine bark?
French maritime pine bark extract A nutritional supplement containing an extract obtained from the French maritime pine bark Pinus pinaster, with potential immunomodulating and antioxidant activities. The French maritime pine bark extract contains high amounts of the phytochemicals proanthocyanidins.
Does pine bark increase testosterone?
Made from the bark of Mediterranean pine trees, pine bark extract can be effective in lowering cholesterol, improving heart health, and treating erectile dysfunction. Recent research has shown that combining pine bark extract with L-arginine has a positive effect on testosterone production.
How long does it take for pine bark to work?
It seems to take up to 3 months of treatment for significant improvement. Heart failure. Early research suggests that taking a specific combination product containing standardized maritime pine bark and coenzyme Q10 for 12 weeks improves some symptoms of heart failure.
What is maritime pine bark good for?
Maritime pine trees grow in countries on the Mediterranean Sea. The bark is used to make medicine. Maritime pine bark extract is used for diabetes, asthma, common cold, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
How much pine bark extract should I take for Ed?
Following the three-month study period, results showed that daily supplementation of 120mg of Pycnogenol significantly improved erectile function in both test groups.
What are the side effects of pine bark?
No major side-effects have been reported in previous trials, although minor side-effects include stomach upsets and headaches. In theory, pine bark may lower blood pressure and blood sugar level, and these effects have also been reported in some RCTs.
Does pine bark extract thin the blood?
Pine bark extract has a significant impact on nitric oxide (NO) levels in the body, which are responsible for vasodilation and improving blood flow.
Is pine bark extract good for you?
Pine bark extract can make a great addition to your nutritional arsenal for its potent antioxidant support, as well as its added support for blood flow, blood sugar, inflammation, immunity, brain function and skin support.
- ^ Acute antioxidant supplementation improves endurance performance in trained athletes.
- ^ a b c Chen P, Song F, Lin LZ. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of Pycnogenol dietary supplements. J AOAC Int. (2009)
- ^ a b c d e Kurlbaum M, Högger P. Plasma protein binding of polyphenols from maritime pine bark extract (USP). J Pharm Biomed Anal. (2011)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Grimm T, et al. Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) after oral administration to healthy volunteers. BMC Clin Pharmacol. (2006)
- ^ a b c d e f Uhlenhut K, Högger P. Facilitated cellular uptake and suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by a metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). Free Radic Biol Med. (2012)
- ^ Düweler KG, Rohdewald P. Urinary metabolites of French maritime pine bark extract in humans. Pharmazie. (2000)
- ^ Roowi S, et al. Green tea flavan-3-ols: colonic degradation and urinary excretion of catabolites by humans. J Agric Food Chem. (2010)
- ^ Stoupi S, et al. A comparison of the in vitro biotransformation of (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 by human faecal microbiota. Mol Nutr Food Res. (2010)
- ^ Das NP. Studies on flavonoid metabolism. Absorption and metabolism of (+)-catechin in man. Biochem Pharmacol. (1971)
- ^ Insights into the metabolism and microbial biotransformation of dietary flavan-3-ols and the bioactivity of their metabolites.
- ^ Crozier A, Del Rio D, Clifford MN. Bioavailability of dietary flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Mol Aspects Med. (2010)
- ^ a b Grimm T, Schäfer A, Högger P. Antioxidant activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases by metabolites of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol). Free Radic Biol Med. (2004)
- ^ Carr A, Frei B. The role of natural antioxidants in preserving the biological activity of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Free Radic Biol Med. (2000)
- ^ a b Fitzpatrick DF, Bing B, Rohdewald P. Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. (1998)
- ^ a b Nishioka K, et al. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. Hypertens Res. (2007)
- ^ a b c d Liu X, et al. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients. Life Sci. (2004)
- ^ Lambert JD, et al. Synthesis and biological activity of the tea catechin metabolites, M4 and M6 and their methoxy-derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. (2005)
- ^ Terra X, et al. Grape-seed procyanidins act as antiinflammatory agents in endotoxin-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages by inhibiting NFkB signaling pathway. J Agric Food Chem. (2007)
- ^ Kim HK, et al. Effects of naturally occurring flavonoids on nitric oxide production in the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and their structure-activity relationships. Biochem Pharmacol. (1999)
- ^ Wang J, Mazza G. Inhibitory effects of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds on nitric oxide production in LPS/IFN-gamma-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Agric Food Chem. (2002)
- ^ a b c Parveen K, et al. Modulatory effects of Pycnogenol® in a rat model of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical evidences. Protoplasma. (2012)
- ^ Peng YJ, et al. Pycnogenol attenuates the inflammatory and nitrosative stress on joint inflammation induced by urate crystals. Free Radic Biol Med. (2012)
- ^ Virgili F, et al. Ferulic acid excretion as a marker of consumption of a French maritime pine (Pinus maritima) bark extract. Free Radic Biol Med. (2000)
- ^ Schoefer L, et al. Anaerobic degradation of flavonoids by Clostridium orbiscindens. Appl Environ Microbiol. (2003)
- ^ a b c Jankyova S, et al. Glucose and blood pressure lowering effects of Pycnogenol® are inefficient to prevent prolongation of QT interval in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy. Pathol Res Pract. (2012)
- ^ a b c Enseleit F, et al. Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Eur Heart J. (2012)
- ^ Youn YJ, Lee J. Chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins of the lower extremities. Korean J Intern Med. (2019)
- ^ a b Cesarone MR, et al. Comparison of Pycnogenol and Daflon in treating chronic venous insufficiency: a prospective, controlled study. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. (2006)
- ^ Arcangeli P. Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency. Fitoterapia. (2000)
- ^ Petrassi C, Mastromarino A, Spartera C. PYCNOGENOL in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytomedicine. (2000)
- ^ a b Koch R. Comparative study of Venostasin and Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytother Res. (2002)
- ^ Belcaro G, et al. Venous ulcers: microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with local use of Pycnogenol. Angiology. (2005)
- ^ Nuzum DS, Gebru TT, Kouzi SA. Pycnogenol for chronic venous insufficiency. Am J Health Syst Pharm. (2011)
- ^ Grossi MG, et al. Improvement in cochlear flow with Pycnogenol® in patients with tinnitus: a pilot evaluation. Panminerva Med. (2010)
- ^ a b Luzzi R, et al. Improvement in symptoms and cochlear flow with pycnogenol in patients with Meniere's disease and tinnitus. Minerva Med. (2014)
- ^ Hosseini S, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective, 16 week crossover study to determine the role of Pycnogenol in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients. Nutrition Research. (2001)
- ^ a b c Zibadi S, et al. Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation. Nutr Res. (2008)
- ^ a b Rezzani R, et al. Effects of melatonin and Pycnogenol on small artery structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. (2010)
- ^ van der Zwan LP, Scheffer PG, Teerlink T. Reduction of myeloperoxidase activity by melatonin and pycnogenol may contribute to their blood pressure lowering effect. Hypertension. (2010)
- ^ Golański J1, et al. Does pycnogenol intensify the efficacy of acetylsalicylic acid in the inhibition of platelet function? In vitro experience. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). (2006)
- ^ a b c Devaraj S, et al. Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids. (2002)
- ^ Nelson AB, et al. Pycnogenol inhibits macrophage oxidative burst, lipoprotein oxidation, and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. (1998)
- ^ Sensky T, Hughes T, Hirsch S. Compulsory psychiatric treatment in the community. I. A controlled study of compulsory community treatment with extended leave under the Mental Health Act: special characteristics of patients treated and impact of treatment. Br J Psychiatry. (1991)
- ^ a b Schmidt AJ, et al. Impact of plant extracts tested in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment on cell survival and energy metabolism in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Phytother Res. (2010)
- ^ Trebatická J, et al. Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. (2006)
- ^ Dvoráková M, et al. Urinary catecholamines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): modulation by a polyphenolic extract from pine bark (pycnogenol). Nutr Neurosci. (2007)
- ^ a b Luzzi R, et al. Pycnogenol® supplementation improves cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students. Panminerva Med. (2011)
- ^ Tenenbaum S, et al. An experimental comparison of Pycnogenol and methylphenidate in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). J Atten Disord. (2002)
- ^ Errichi S, et al. Supplementation with Pycnogenol® improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition. Panminerva Med. (2011)
- ^ a b Inhibition of NF-κB activation and MMP-9 secretion by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol).
- ^ Celec P. Nuclear factor kappa B--molecular biomedicine: the next generation. Biomed Pharmacother. (2004)
- ^ Lee YC, et al. The involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in airway inflammation of patients with acute asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. (2001)
- ^ Chung TW, et al. Novel and therapeutic effect of caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenyl ester on hepatocarcinoma cells: complete regression of hepatoma growth and metastasis by dual mechanism. FASEB J. (2004)
- ^ Ho TY, Bagnell CA. Relaxin induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 through activation of nuclear factor kappa B in human THP-1 cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. (2005)
- ^ Lee KM, et al. Spinal NF-kB activation induces COX-2 upregulation and contributes to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. Eur J Neurosci. (2004)
- ^ a b Schäfer A, et al. Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). Biomed Pharmacother. (2006)
- ^ Kawasaki T, Kawai T. Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Front Immunol. (2014)
- ^ Luo H, et al. Pycnogenol attenuates atherosclerosis by regulating lipid metabolism through the TLR4-NF-κB pathway. Exp Mol Med. (2015)
- ^ Gu JQ, et al. Pycnogenol, an extract from French maritime pine, suppresses Toll-like receptor 4-mediated expression of adipose differentiation-related protein in macrophages. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
- ^ Gao B, et al. Pycnogenol Protects Against Rotenone-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells Through Regulating NF-κB-iNOS Signaling Pathway. DNA Cell Biol. (2015)
- ^ Liu R, et al. Pycnogenol Reduces Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway-Mediated Atherosclerosis Formation in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. (2016)
- ^ a b c Verlaet A, et al. Toll-Like Receptor-Dependent Immunomodulatory Activity of Pycnogenol®. Nutrients. (2019)
- ^ Pycnogenol supplementation reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adults with knee osteoarthritis.
- ^ a b Belcaro G, et al. Treatment of osteoarthritis with Pycnogenol. The SVOS (San Valentino Osteo-arthrosis Study). Evaluation of signs, symptoms, physical performance and vascular aspects. Phytother Res. (2008)
- ^ a b Wilson D, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study to evaluate the potential of pycnogenol for improving allergic rhinitis symptoms. Phytother Res. (2010)
- ^ Choi YH, Yan GH. Pycnogenol inhibits immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in mast cells. Phytother Res. (2009)
- ^ Khlevner J, Park Y, Margolis KG. Brain-Gut Axis: Clinical Implications. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. (2018)
- ^ Basnayake C. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Aust Prescr. (2018)
- ^ Adriani A, et al. Irritable bowel syndrome: the clinical approach. Panminerva Med. (2018)
- ^ a b Belcaro G, et al. Pycnogenol® supplementation improves the control of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Panminerva Med. (2018)
- ^ Rohdewald P. A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. (2002)
- ^ Maia H Jr, Haddad C, Casoy J. The effect of pycnogenol on patients with dysmenorrhea using low-dose oral contraceptives. Int J Womens Health. (2014)
- ^ Psianou K, et al. Clinical and immunological parameters of Sjögren's syndrome. Autoimmun Rev. (2018)
- ^ Luzzi R, et al. Efficacy of Pycnogenol® supplementation in remission phases of Sjögren syndrome. Minerva Cardioangiol. (2018)
- ^ Seyahi E, Yazici H. Behçet's syndrome: pulmonary vascular disease. Curr Opin Rheumatol. (2015)
- ^ a b Hu S, et al. Behçet syndrome: effects of Pycnogenol® supplementation during regression phases. Minerva Cardioangiol. (2018)
- ^ a b Rohdewald PJ. Review on Sustained Relief of Osteoarthritis Symptoms with a Proprietary Extract from Pine Bark, Pycnogenol. J Med Food. (2018)
- ^ Cisár P, et al. Effect of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Phytother Res. (2008)
- ^ a b c d Lee OH, et al. Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production associated with antioxidant enzyme responses. Phytother Res. (2012)
- ^ Hasegawa N. Stimulation of lipolysis by pycnogenol. Phytother Res. (1999)
- ^ a b c Mochizuki M, Hasegawa N. Pycnogenol stimulates lipolysis in 3t3-L1 cells via stimulation of beta-receptor mediated activity. Phytother Res. (2004)
- ^ Changes in lipolysis and hormone-sensitive lipase expression caused by procyanidins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
- ^ a b Lee HH, et al. Effect of pycnogenol on glucose transport in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother Res. (2010)
- ^ Preventive Effect of Pine Bark Extract (Flavangenol) on Metabolic Disease in Western Diet-Loaded Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes Mice.
- ^ Packer L, Rimbach G, Virgili F. Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Radic Biol Med. (1999)
- ^ Noda Y, et al. Hydroxyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of natural source antioxidants using the computerized JES-FR30 ESR spectrometer system. Biochem Mol Biol Int. (1997)
- ^ Iravani S, Zolfaghari B. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract. Res Pharm Sci. (2011)
- ^ Sivonová M, et al. The effect of Pycnogenol on the erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Gen Physiol Biophys. (2004)
- ^ Voss P, et al. Ferritin oxidation and proteasomal degradation: protection by antioxidants. Free Radic Res. (2006)
- ^ Rong Y, et al. Pycnogenol protects vascular endothelial cells from t-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidant injury. Biotechnol Ther. (1994-1995)
- ^ Chida M, et al. In vitro testing of antioxidants and biochemical end-points in bovine retinal tissue. Ophthalmic Res. (1999)
- ^ Zižková P, Viskupičová J, Horáková L. Pycnogenol and Ginkgo biloba extract: effect on peroxynitrite-oxidized sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase. Interdiscip Toxicol. (2010)
- ^ Schäfer A, Högger P. Oligomeric procyanidins of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) effectively inhibit alpha-glucosidase. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. (2007)
- ^ a b c Liu X, Zhou HJ, Rohdewald P. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol dose-dependently lowers glucose in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. (2004)
- ^ a b c d Aoki H, et al. Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol® and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. Phytother Res. (2012)
- ^ Hosseini S, et al. Pycnogenol((R)) in the Management of Asthma. J Med Food. (2001)
- ^ Belcaro G, et al. Pycnogenol® improvements in asthma management. Panminerva Med. (2011)
- ^ a b Mei L, Mochizuki M, Hasegawa N. Hepatoprotective Effects of Pycnogenol in a Rat Model of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis. Phytother Res. (2012)
- ^ Parveen K, et al. Protective effects of Pycnogenol on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. Chem Biol Interact. (2010)
- ^ a b Ledda A, et al. Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study. BJU Int. (2010)
- ^ a b c Stanislavov R, Nikolova V. Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine. J Sex Marital Ther. (2003)
- ^ Stanislavov R, Nikolova V, Rohdewald P. Improvement of erectile function with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Int J Impot Res. (2008)
- ^ a b Marini A, et al. Pycnogenol® effects on skin elasticity and hydration coincide with increased gene expressions of collagen type I and hyaluronic acid synthase in women. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. (2012)